W1_SSD_ Tuckman Assessment


After five days face to face training, now we are in the next stage of the Integrated Portfolio (Asset), Program (Operations) and Project Management Methodology Course, which is the distance learning phase. During the face to face session, we have been asked to develop a project team. The project team’s name is Simatupang AACE 2014. The project’s objectives are the ability of the team members to pass AACE Certification test in the first attempt, and provide return on the training investment. The achievement of the project objectives is expected to be the reflection on the project team performance on delivering project’s deliveries.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

A group of people is change and get matured over time. In 1965 Bruce Tuckman introduced his model on group maturity phases. Tuckman’s model shows that a group of people is getting matured by following 4 phases of progression, which are:

Forming –> Storming –> Norming –> Performing

In his theory, Tuckman also mentions that each phase requires different leadership approach. These leadership approaches are similar to the Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model. The Hersey/Blanchard’s Leadership Model separates the model into 4 leadership types, which basically following how the maturity level of the group. The four leadership types and its description are as follow:

1. Telling : One way communication. The leader gives detail direction and define the roles the groups and groups member
2. Selling : The leader provides two way communications. The leader still provides group direction, but also building confidence of the team members and allowing the group or individual to buy into the decision making process.
3. Participating : Decision on the day to day task and process is left to the group member. The leader facilitates and involve in the decision making process, but the group member have the controls on the result.
4. Delegating : The leader is less attached to the decision making process. The group members have control over the process and the result. The group member also can decide when to include the leader in the decision making process.

It is important to understand in what stage Simatupang AACE 2014 maturity level and what type of leadership should be applied, as the wrong leadership style can produce negative impact to the group performance.

DEVELOPMENT OF FEASIBLE ALTERNATIVES

As per Tuckman’s Model, the group position can be in one of the four possibilities. The group can be either in Forming phase, Storming Phase, Norming Phase or Performing Phase. Each of the phases will require different leadership style.

DEVELOPMENT OF OUTCOMES FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE

Following the Hersey/Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model and Tuckman’s Model, Figure 1 shows how the leadership style is changing following the group’s level of maturity.

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Figure 1. Combination of Tuckman’s and Hersey/Blanchard’s Models

SELECTION OF CRITERIA

To be able to identify the group maturity level according to Tuckman’s Model, a survey was conducted using Donald Clark’s survey tool to all members of the team. Eleven responses were received out of 12 members. The survey is basically try to identify team member perception on the level of interaction between each team member within the group. The data collected, then will be used to determine a score associated to the Tuckman’s phase model. The phase with the highest score shows the most likely phase of the group maturity is.

ANALYSIS FOR THE ALTERNATIVES

For each of the group maturity level is fitted to series of probability distribution. For a bonded data (min=8, max=40) @Risk only provides 4 types of probability distributions, namely Beta general, Pert, Uniform and Triangular. With this method we can identify which probability distribution is fitted the most to the survey data. Once the distribution is found, then we can find the most like value for each group maturity levels. The result can be found in Figure 2 until Figure 5 and also in Table 1.

ssd_w1_02

Figure 2. Forming phase probability distribution selection

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Figure 3. Storming phase probability distribution selection

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Figure 4. Norming phase probability distribution selection

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Figure 5. Performing phase probability distribution selection

Phase

Selected Probability Distribution Type

Median (P50)

Mode (most likely value)

P90

Forming Beta General

25.3

25.4

29.6

Storming Beta General

22.3

22.3

25.2

Norming Beta General

26.6

26.8

30.6

Performing Pert

30.1

32.2

36.5

Table 1. Probability distributions selection

For forming phase, the triangular distribution is actually more fit to the data, but because of it looks more logical to have a bell curve shape probability distribution for the available data, pert distribution is selected.

As shown in Table 1, Performing phase is getting the highest score.

SELECTION ON THE PREFERRED ALTERNATIVES

The calculation result in Table 1 shows that the team has a very high score for Performing Phase. The second highest score is Norming Phase. Donald Clark’s survey tool mentions that if the score higher than 32, it is a strong indication of the group phase. Also, if the scores are high for both Norming and performing, then the group is at Performing Phase. At median value, the Performing Score is 32.2, and the Norming Phase score is 26.8, which indicates that the group is in Performing Phase.

As per Figure 1, for performing Phase, the matching leadership type is Delegating. With Delegating, the team leader is expected to give more freedom to the team member to finish any given task. The leader can provide trust, empowerment and delegate the team’s responsibility to the team member. This is because the team is expected to have capability and willingness to finish any task assigned to the team.

PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND POST EVALUATION RESULT

Even though the group is already in the Performing Phase, the Program and Project Managers should still monitor how the team performs. This is can be achieved by regular reporting and tracking against program and project schedules, milestones and targets. After a few months, another survey could be carried out, to check on how the team member perceptions change over time. Tuckman’s and Hersley/Blanchard’s Model indicates that the group maturity is following a linier approach. Unfortunately from time to time we find a performing group broken down into pieces. Bales (1965) mentions that instead of linear progression, the group may follow a cyclical path, where the group member seeking balances between delivering the task and developing interpersonal relationship within the group. If this issue is not properly managed, the group will not perform very well.

REFERENCES

Tuckman’s stages of group development. (n.d).  Retrieved September 2, 2014 from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuckman’s_stages_of_group_development

Situational leadership theory. (n.d).  Retrieved September 2, 2014 from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership

Chapman , Alan. (n.d). Leadership Theories. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/leadership-theories.htm

Chapman , Alan. (n.d). Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing Model. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm

Clark , D. (April 21, 2002). Survey: What Stage is Your Team in? Retrieved from http://www.cscaweb.org/EMS/sector_team/support_files/tools_for_the_team/tool_stage.pdf

Smith, M. K. (2005). Bruce W. Tuckman – forming, storming, norming and performing in groups, the encyclopaedia of informal education. Retrieved  from http://infed.org/mobi/bruce-w-tuckman-forming-storming-norming-and-performing-in-groups/

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1 Comment

Filed under Sadat SD, Week 01

One response to “W1_SSD_ Tuckman Assessment

  1. WOW!!! Very impressive analysis!! Not only did you follow our step by step process, but your use of simulation software was excellent as well!!

    And your citations were spot on, EXCEPT that to be correct, you should have included a reference to the software you used to do the analysis.

    Other than that relatively small point, an EXCELLENT W1 posting.

    BR,
    Dr. PDG, in Singapore

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