The Objectives of AACE International Certification Preparation Course are clear, 1st to Pass AACE Certification Examination on the first attempt and 2nd to optimally get Return on Training Investment. For that purpose, the class has setup Simatupang_AACE_2014 team as part of the transfer of learning approach. For the successful of this team, it is critical to monitor what Leadership Style is appropriate applied for the team time to time.
Dr Bruce Tuckman published his Forming Storming Norming Performing model in 1965. The Forming Storming Norming Performing theory is an elegant and helpful explanation of team development and behavior.
Tuckman’s model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team.
There are 4 stages model for Tuckman which same meaning in leadership styles (based on Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory):
- Forming : Telling/directing (S1)
- Storming : Selling/coaching (S2
- Norming : Participating/supporting(S3)
Performing : Delegating (S4)
Figure 1: Team Stages
Development of Outcomes for Each Alternatives
Refer to the above Tuckman’smodel, the alternative leadership for each stage are as follow:
- Stage 1 – Forming: Telling/directing (S1)
- High dependence for leader guidance and direction
- Individual roles and responsible are unclear
- Leader must prepared to answer a lot of question from team
- Stage2 – Storming: Selling/coaching (S2
- Decision don’t come easily in group
- Team need to focus on its goal to avoid by emotional issue
- Stage3 – Norming: Participating/supporting(S3)
- Agreement and consensus is largely forms among team
- Roles and responsibility are cleared and accepted
- Stage4 – Performing: Delegating (S4)
- The team is more strategically aware
- The team has shared vision and able to stand on its own feet
- There is a focus on achieving goals
Based on the questioner survey tools suggested by Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo (http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/teamsuv.html), we collect 11 team members survey data’s and using PERT P-90. Following are the result:
Personal Test Result
Figure 2: Test Result
The highest value result is performing stage and norming stage.
Analysis for the Alternatives
Based on PERT P-90 above, it indicates that Simatupang AACE 2014 team members relatively perceive the environment of the team is strongly on Norming and Performing stage.
The team member has relatively high Commitment / Motivation to achieve the team’s goal and objectives, but because the variation number for those forming, storming, norming and performing is relatively are not so different, the team team still need coaching, support and direction to achieve the team goal and objective from either the manager or mentor.
Selection on the Preferred Alternatives
The Tuchman test result indicates that SImatupang AACE 2014 is high-performing teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision. The Program Manager and Project Manager should bring team members work together on common tasks and establish roles among team members. Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participative.
Performance Monitoring and Post Evaluation Result
The progress whether we are moving through performing stage should be measured over time. Each of team members should do an assessment at the different period of time for comparing how far the progress we have made as a team and what leadership style need to be applied as we move through performing stage.
Tuckman, B. (1965). Bruce Tuckman forming storming norming performing team development model.Retrieved from Web site: http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm, web. 21 January 2013
Tuckman, B. Bruce Tuckmanstage of group development.Retrieved from :http://en.wikpedia.org/wiki/Tuckman’s_stages_of_group_development
Hersey.Blanchard situational theory. Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hersey%E2%80%93Blanchard_situational_theory
Donald Clark (April 21, 2002),http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html, section on training leadership and performance.
Situational leadership, retrieved from: http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_situational.html, web. 21 January 2013