W1.1_HPO_Tuckman Analysis Assignment


1.    Problem statement: Which management/leadership style is appropriate?

Pushing a team or a group to be a good and productive team is always a challenge. I and my friends just finished an opening face-to-face session of a part of AACE course where we had to form a team in purpose of finishing some projects. And now, we should make an assessment of our team development progress and then we should choose what management/leadership style more adaptive to the current situation is.

2.    Feasible alternatives: Management/Leadership Theories

There are many theories of leadership models according to Scouller’s (2011) classification, because he criticized four older models and suggested his Three Levels of Leadership model based on leadership presence. For answering this problem, I am going to use three major leadership style theories based on situational/contingency theory according to Scouller’s (2011) classification including Blanchard & Hershey’s Lifecycle Theory of Leadership/Situational Leadership theory, Kurt Lewin’s Management Style theory, and Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Continuum of Leadership Behaviors theory.

3.    Calculations: Donald Clark’s 32 questionnaires survey

For having a good analysis of what we should do manage the team, we should know first about our current position or stage where our team is. In order to assess our team development stage position, we are suggested by our professor, Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, to use 32 questionnaires as a survey tool developed by Donald Clark. The summary result of the survey assessment from 11 members of class using PERT P90 is as follow:

Forming           : 28

Storming         : 24

Norming          : 29

Performing      : 33

4.    Setting minimum criteria: Team’s development position stage

The scores show that the group development stage we are now is already in performing stage. According to Tuckman’s model (Figure 1), performing stage is characterized of high participation of the members because they are already know their tasks and responsibilities. The barriers of among members are little and they don’t need more direction from the manager/leader because the team already had the clear objectives. This is a problem to be managed to maintain what we already have now to perform and move forward the group to the next stage otherwise we will not have a good and productive team.

Figure 1. Tuckman Model of Group Development Stages

forming

Adopted from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm

5.    Comparison of the alternatives against criteria: Management/Leadership Theories Application

Blanchard & Hershey (1969) proposed about the way a leader should do in the stage of a team development. It’s like mirroring the situation in stages in Tuckman’s model. In performing stage, a leader should delegate the authority and responsibility to the members.

Figure 2. Blanchard & Hershey Situational Leadership Theory Model

090213_0958_W1HWBTuckma2.png

Adopted from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm

Lewin & White (1939) suggested the models based on the control between the management and employee. Situationally, the performing stage is where the control of the members is very high. The free reign (laissez faire) style is very adaptive in the performing stage.

Figure 3. Kurt Lewin Management Style Theory Model

aace-lewin

Adopted from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html

Tannenbaum & Schmidt (1973) researched the management’s way in decision making. In forming stage, a manager or a leader should decide less than members/subordinates do and give them more freedom and independence to decide.

Figure 4 Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Continuum of Leadership Behaviors Model

continuum

Adopted from http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/continuum.html

6.    Selection of the best alternatives compared against the criteria: Conclusion of theories analysis

In order to solve the team problems in the performing stage and move forward to the next stage, the leader should have more delegation of authority and responsibility to members (Situational Leadership), less control in free reign/laissez fair style (Management Style), and fewer decisions made (Continuum of Leadership Behaviors). In general, all theories give a same result that a leader should not hold more control or authority and give more of it to its members/subordinates.

7.    Follow up assessment: The leader does next

The leader in performing stage should give more independence and authority to the members to decide and control themselves. It’s caused by already good and clear objectives the team got in our previous stage. Also, the team should make an updated position stage periodically to monitor the team’s cohesiveness.

References:

http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Lewin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_styles

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_levels_of_leadership_model

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuckman’s_stages_of_group_development

http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/continuum.html

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/teamsuv.html

Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. (1969). Life cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23 (5), 26–34.

Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organizational Behavior 3rd Edition: Utilizing Human Resources. New Jersey/Prentice Hall

Lewin, K., LIippit, R. and White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301

Scouller, J. (2011). The Three Levels of Leadership: How to Develop Your Leadership Presence, Knowhow and Skill. Cirencester: Management Books 2000.ISBN 9781852526818

Tannenbaum, R., Schmidt, W (1973). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review, May/June 1973

Tuckman, Bruce (1965). “Developmental sequence in small groups”Psychological Bulletin 63 (6): 384–99. doi:10.1037/h0022100PMID 14314073. Retrieved 2008-11-10. “Reprinted with permission in Group Facilitation, Spring 2001”

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2 Comments

Filed under Hadianto P, Week 01

2 responses to “W1.1_HPO_Tuckman Analysis Assignment

  1. “OK” job on your W1 blog posting Pak Prasetio!!! (3 stars) You did fine with the 7 step process but your citations were not done well…….

    First, do NOT cite Wikipedia!!! It simply is not stable enough to use as a reference. Secondly, you did not cite any of those URL’s correctly………. Go HERE http://www.palisade.com/decisiontools_suite/ and learn how to properly cite on line references, as those are the most common sources you will be using for your paper and your blogs and if you don’t do them correctly using APA format, you will lose points.

    I will accept them this week but if you get them wrong in the future, I will reject your blog posting……

    BR, Dr. PDG, Shanghai, China

  2. Hadianto Prasetio

    Ok Sir, I’ll do better next week.

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